Enterprise Social Networks continues to be used by organizations seeking to increase collaboration between employees, industry, and customers partners. Offering a varied range of features and functionality, this technology can be distinguished by the underlying business models that providers of this software to deploy. This research identifies and details the various business models through an evaluation of leading Business Social Networks: Yammer, Chatter, SharePoint, Connections, Jive, Facebook, and Twitter.
A key contribution of this research is the identification of consumer and corporate and business models as extreme approaches. These findings align well with research on the adoption of Business INTERNET SITES that has talked about bottom-up and top-down techniques. Of specific interest are cross models that cover a corporate and business model within a consumer model and may, therefore, provide synergies on both models. From a broader perspective, this can be seen as the merging of the organization and consumer marketplaces for these products and services.
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Fannie Mae was created in 1938 as President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal. The creation of the Federal National Mortgage Association was to ensure that mortgage loans were made more open to lower-income households and to assist in liquidity in the mortgage market. In 1968 the government converted Fannie Mae to a shareholder owned corporation in order to eliminate its purchase from the federal government balance sheet. To be able to create a competing the federal government formed the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Association in 1970. The essential idea was that competition would create a more solid secondary home loan market. The way Freddie Fannie and Mac PC Mae work are that they buy loans from approved mortgage sellers.
These loans are exchanged either for cash or home loan supported securities which assure payment of principal and interest. Mortgage retailers subsequently can either sell or keep the securities. These businesses also bundle mortgage backed securities from their own portfolios to investors in the secondary mortgage market. In order for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to ensure their mortgage backed securities they set the lending terms and suggestions that determine which applications can be accepted for sale.
To simplify the role of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae is to state that they provide finance institutions with the money to provide new loans. The 2007 sub-prime home loan problems found a lot of low-income debtors, some with poor credit were unable to pay their mortgage loans. Almost 80% of mortgages issued to the sub-prime borrowers were adjustable rate mortgages (ARM). With home prices peaking in 2006 home prices started to decline.
Values continue steadily to decline as these high-risk borrowers could no more afford their homes credited to steep boosts in the payments of ARM mortgages. This caused an explosion of foreclosures in the united states. Again the problem was compounded by issues with the Auto industry and the failure of economic icons such as Bear Stearns, The Goldman Sachs Group, Citigroup Inc., and Freddie Mac PC and Fannie Mae even.
Home prices accelerated their descent as foreclosures raises, jobs were lost and the nationwide countries finances teetered on the brink of disaster. As the total result lenders began to employ much stricter standards for loans. A shell-shocked lending industry had not been equipped to react to financial failures of the level plus they essentially shut off the flow of money available for loans. The federal government was pressured to step in to bolster self-confidence.
The Treasury Department and Federal Reserve received the power to grant usage of low-interest loans and removed the prohibition on the Federal Reserve to purchase stock in Government Sponsored Businesses. Despite these efforts the economy continuing on its downward trajectory. Federal government participation has extended programs to reinvigorate the mortgage industry Currently.